|Topic:||The glycerol phosphate shuttle .|
|Details:||This shuttle is a secondary mechanism for the transport of electrons from cytosolic NADH to mitochondrial carriers of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. The primary cytoplasmic NADH electron shuttle is the malate-aspartate shuttle (see below). Two enzymes are involved in this shuttle. One is the cytosolic version of the enzyme glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1) which has as one substrate, NADH. The second is the mitochondrial form (GPD2) of the enzyme which has as one of its' substrates, FAD. The net result is that there is a continual conversion of the glycolytic intermediate, DHAP and glycerol-3-phosphate with the concomitant transfer of the electrons from reduced cytosolic NADH to mitochondrial oxidized FAD. Since the electrons from mitochondrial FADH2 feed into the oxidative phosphorylation pathway at coenzyme Q (as opposed to NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase [complex I]) only approximately two moles of ATP will be generated from glycolysis. GAPDH is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.|
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