|Topic:||Synthesis of Histamine .|
|Details:|| The histidine decarboxylase gene (symbol: HDC) is located on chromosome 15q21.2 and is composed of 14 exons that generate two alternatively spliced mRNAs encoding two distinct isoforms of the enzyme. The isoform 1 protein is composed of 662 amino acids and the isoform 2 protein is composed of 629 amino acids.
Histamine functions by binding to specific histamine receptors. Humans express four distinct histamine receptors identified as H1R, H2R, H3R, and H4R. All four histamine receptors are members of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. The H1R protein is encoded by the HRH1 gene, the H2R protein is encoded by the HRH2 gene, the H3R protein is encoded by the HRH3 gene, and the H4R protein is encoded by the HRH4. The HRH1 gene is located on chromosome 3p25 and is composed of 8 exons that generate four alternatively spliced mRNAs all of which encode the same 487 amino acid protein. The HRH2 gene is located on chromosome 5q35.2 and is composed of 8 exons that generate two alternatively spliced mRNAs. HRH2 isoform 1 is 397 amino acids and HRH2 isoform 2 is 359 amino acids. The HRH3 gene is located on chromosome 20q13.33 and is composed of 4 exons that encode a 445 amino acid protein. The HRH4 gene is located on chromosome 18q11.2 and is composed of 5 exons that generate three alternatively spliced mRNAs. Isoform 1 is 390 amino acids. Isoform 2 is 302 amino acids. Isoform 3 is 67 amino acids.
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